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HalsRefNoHM1
TitleHILL END HOSPITAL, ST ALBANS
DescriptionHill End Asylum (1899-1920); County Mental Hospital (1920-1933); Hill End Hospital for Mental and Nervous Disorders (1933); Hill End Hospital and Clinic for the Prevention and Treatment of Mental and Nervous Disorders
Datec1790 - 1995
Extentc14 shelves (3 cubic metres)
LevelFonds
View TreeCHM1
AccessConditions[Access restrictions may apply] THIS COLLECTION IS HELD OFF-SITE. PLEASE CONSIDER ORDERING IN ADVANCE
AdminHistoryOVERVIEW
Hill End Hospital, on the outskirts of St Albans, operated from 1899-1995, caring for people with mental health problems.

HISTORICAL CONTEXT
Before the late 18th century there are only infrequent references to lunatics in the Quarter Sessions records, as they were often simply confined in Houses of Correction with rogues and vagabonds (see Le Hardy 1961 pp125-132). The involvement of the Quarter Sessions increased when, in 1774, they took over the licensing and oversight of private madhouses (14 Geo. III, c.49), for example that of Nathaniel Cotton at St Albans where William Cowper was held in 1763-1764. Fees were charged for these licences, which were renewed annually. In 1828 private asylums were further regulated and Commissioners appointed by the Secretary of State (9 Geo. IV, c. 41).

Local authorities were given powers in 1808 to establish asylums for pauper lunatics (48 Geo. III, c. 96). Justices of the Peace for Hertfordshire held an inquiry into the situation in 1811 but nothing came of it. Under an Act of 1815 (55 Geo. III, c. 46) Quarter Sessions required the Overseers of each parish to submit returns of lunatics, but few of these survive (documents: QS Misc B1-B2b). This requirement was further enforced in 1828 (9 Geo. IV, c. 40) and thereafter records survive for most parishes (documents: QS Misc B3-B5; LMisc 1033-4; DP107/18/2). After 1842 the returns were made through the Clerks of the Peace to the Boards of Guardians (documents: QS Misc B3-B4, B6).

Under the 1828 Act the County and Liberty of St Albans had both made provision (see sources listed in Le Hardy p129) for their pauper and criminal lunatics to be received in Bedford County Asylum (see Cashman 1992 below, and see documents QS Misc. B13, B15-18, B111/1-4), and were joined in 1846 by Huntingdonshire (8 and 9 Vict. c. 126).

The 1853 Act (16 and 17 Vict. c. 97) gave local authorities wider powers for provision of asylums. Under this Act the Three Counties Asylum at Stotfold, Bedfordshire (near the Arlesey parish border) was established in 1860 for Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire. This was later known as Fairfield Hospital. By 1876 it held 1000 inmates so enlargement was being considered, but the decision was made to build a new asylum for Hertfordshire patients only (documents: QS Misc. B12, B14, B16, B20, B23-24, B111/7, 12-14; QS Var. 14; DEL4169/1-19; BG/WAR 89; DDE142). The Local Government Act 1888 placed upon County Councils the care of lunatics, this function having previously been discharged by Quarter Sessions. The new asylum would therefore be the responsibility of Hertfordshire County Council.

SITE HISTORY
On 20 Apr 1894 the Secretary of State approved the purchase of an area on the south-east edge of St Albans, central in the county in terms of population spread. Subsequently, on 15 Jun 1894 Hertfordshire County Council purchased 174 acres 3 roods 4 perches of land from Captain Gaussen, including 96 acres 3 roods and 31 perches of Hill End Farm and 77acres 3 roods and 13 perches of Beastneys Farm in the parishes of St Peter and St Stephen, St Albans. About 10 acres more were bought on 20 Mar 1895 from the Trustees of Mr Kinder. Later, Oct 1899 saw the purchase of 379 acres from Mrs Hart, 5 acres 28 perches bought from Mrs Croft in Jan 1900 and 1acre 9 perches gained by the diversion of an old lane. It was thought 2 acres 1 rood 26 perches were lost to make a new road. The nett area was 184 acres 3 roods 12 perches, 8.5 acres of which would be occupied by the main building.

HILL END ASYLUM: BEGINNINGS
On 23 Oct 1893 Hertfordshire County Council appointed a Visiting Committee to provide an asylum. George Thomas Hine (1842-1916) was appointed architect 18 Jun 1894. The hospital was based on his first primitive echelon pattern (as used at Claybury Asylum and Kestevan County Asylum). The plans were approved by the Council 11 Jul 1895. The first phase of development was completed by Jan 1902, although building work was ongoing for a number of years. In Oct 1895 2 acres of land had been sold to the Great Northern Railway. The railway line was built by 5 Mar 1899, opened 1 May 1899 and was eventually closed to passengers 1 Oct 1951, freight deliveries continuing until 5 Oct 1964.
The institution opened as the Hertfordshire County Asylum on 7 Apr 1899 and 100 males were admitted. Although primarily for pauper lunatics, from the beginning a few paying private patients were admitted. The first Medical Superintendent was appointed 11 Nov 1898. Dr Norman Boycott, who retired Oct 1925, stated that his aim was to achieve a cure, or at least to secure sufficient improvement for the patient to be returned to their relatives. He wanted to offer a calm supportive environment with non-stressful activities such as handicrafts, supervised country walks, entertainment in the recreational hall, the choir and band, and football and cricket teams. But progress was slow, which Dr Boycott attributed to many of the first patients having been confined untreated in workhouses or prisons. For example in 1904 although there were 43 recoveries, 600 remained there. The success rate improved, but not enough to forestall the rise in numbers, and by 1939 the Hospital held 1260 patients.
The Mental Deficiency Act 1913 was the first since the Idiots Act 1886 to acknowledge the distinction between those with learning difficulties and learning disabilities from birth or an early age, and those who had otherwise become mentally ill and might be treatable. The mentally deficient would remain amongst those at Hill End until Cell Barnes opened on the adjoining site in 1933. An innovative patient category was the out-patient, mentioned as early as 1925 and presaging the development of community mental health provision.

HILL END HOSPITAL: MENTAL TREATMENT ACT 1930, AND CELL BARNES COLONY
Patients at the 'Hospital' (now no longer the 'Asylum') were now categorised as certified, voluntary or temporary. Voluntary patients submitted themselves of their own free will. Temporary patients were those incapable of volunteering themselves, but who were thought likely to benefit from a short stay.
In 1934 the first out-patient 'Nerve Clinics' were started at Hill End and at St Albans City Hospital. Also that year a Child Guidance Clinic was set up. In 1935 occupational centres opened, and also a new Pathological laboratory.

Cell Barnes Colony opened in 1933 on the adjoining site. In the 1920s Hertfordshire County Council had bought 93 acres from the Earl of Verulam, to be developed as a 'colony for mental defectives'. It was opened for patients on 2 Mar 1933 and was to care for the mentally defective, being those with learning difficulties or disabilities from birth or a young age whose full recovery was not expected. Records of the hospital are held at Hertfordshire Archives and Local Studies and are catalogued under the reference HM2.

HILL END HOSPITAL: WORLD WAR II AND ST BARTS
In Summer 1939, when war seemed inevitable, plans were issued by the government making provision for the care of air-raid casualties and for the continuation of the treatment of the sick in the event of hostilities. These plans constituted the Emergency Medical Service (EMS). EMS hospitals were basically civil hospitals but they were also used for large numbers of service patients, particularly those requiring treatment in specialised units and also when demands for hospital care suddenly increased. London was divided into five sectors, with one or more teaching hospital per sector. These central hospitals were to deal with emergencies due to either acute illness or to injury, including those resulting from enemy action.

At the edge of each sector a large hospital, usually a mental health hospital, was taken over by the government as a base hospital. Hill End was the base hospital for the Bart's sector, and new units for the surgical care of patients with head and chest diseases were established. Cell Barnes was also used for Bart's patients. Both hospitals had the services of Bart's nurses.

With war imminent, and fearful of the arrival of large numbers of war and air raid casualties, the Government requisitioned Hill End in 1939 as an Emergency Medical Service Hospital. On the 31st August 1939, five sisters and 18 nurses arrived at Hill End as the Bart's advance guard. The mental patients were discharged or removed to other hospitals (302 to Wallingford, 316 to Napsbury, 346 to Three Counties, 198 to Narborough, 38 patients discharged or released on trial), except for about 60 useful ones, and Hill End was taken over by St Bartholomews Hospital, London ('Barts'). Most of Barts' staff moved to Hill End, joined by many of the former Hill End staff. As the Government's fears were not quite realised the hospital ended up treating mainly civilian cases. An exception was the flood of servicemen wounded after the Dunkirk evacuation of 1940 (see HM1/Pa2/6).

There were important medical advances made during this period, such as the early introduction of penicillin, and the plastic and reconstructive surgery carried out by the pioneering Rainsford Mowlem. The work of this Plastic and Maxillo-Facial Unit was recorded by the artist Dickie Orpen (Diana Orpen), and her rediscovered drawings are now deposited with the Royal College of Surgeons. Treatment of mental patients continued at out-patients clinics in St Albans and elsewhere. After the war ended the Bart's units gradually began returning to London, freeing the Hill End wards for their original purpose. As the bomb damage to London premises had to be repaired it was not until 1961 that the last of Bart's finally left.
Encouraged by art therapy theorist Adrian Hill, Dr Kimber appointed Norman Colquhoun and patients' work was exhibited from the late 1940s.

HILL END HOSPITAL: NHS

On 5 Jul 1948 Hertfordshire County Council surrendered the hospital to the new National Health Service. Hill End came under the Mid Hertfordshire Group (No 7) Hospital Management Committee, and the Hospital would be administered by the Hill End Hospital House Committee. Dr Harold Palmer was appointed in 1951 to re-establish Hill End as a mental hospital. He aimed to treat patients more humanely, referring to them as men and women rather than males and females. A mixed ward was set up where elderly men and women could sit, eat and watch television together. In 1959, the year the Thackeray Siamese Twins were separated, wards were given names rather than numbers, and patients' correspondence was no longer to be censored. Nursing staff were integrated rather than being organised into male and female hierarchies. The number of in-patients rose to 745 in 1965, but gradually fell after this due to increasing use of out-patient clinics. By 1982 the number of in-patients had fallen below 400 and by 1994 was down to 132.

In 1954 a separate unit, High Wick Hospital was established nearby by the North West Thames Metropolitan Hospital Board. With its school it provided therapy and education for children with severe developmental disorders or who were suffering trauma. Some minutes are in this catalogue, combined with those of Hill End.

A year after the Hospital's farms were closed down, the Mental Health Act 1959 abolished the distinction between psychiatric and other hospitals, and encouraged community care. A groundswell of anti-institutionalism dominated the 1960s, from the anti-psychiatry of R D Laing to Government policy such as that voiced by Enoch Powell. In the midst of this, in 1964, a young poet named David Chapman (1944-1976) was admitted. Upon his release his account of his experience was published under the title 'Withdrawal', and included photographs of the patients and Hospital that he had taken with a smuggled-in camera. A film was planned by the publisher, George P Solomos, but never made. The buildings were, though, later used for at least two episodes of the television series 'Inspector Morse'.

HILL END HOSPITAL: CARE IN COMMUNITY, HORIZON HEALTH TRUST, CLOSURE
The NHS policy of care in the community rather than in large institutions came to be more fully implemented with the Community Care Act 1990. A year later the new Horizon Health Trust (1991-2001) began its winding down of Hill End, Cell Barnes and Harperbury.
In 1995 Hill End closed completely. The widespread closure of such outdated institutions was the culmination of decades of NHS and Government policy drift towards community care, fuelled by public outcry and anti-psychiatry, enshrined in legislation such as the Mental Health Act 1959 and the Community Care Act 1990, and encouraged by the proven success of out-patients facilities, a better acceptance and understanding of mental health, and increasingly effective self-medication.

Elderly patients were transferred to Geriatric Wards in St Albans City Hospital and elsewhere, whilst other patients needing permanent care moved to new small units that had up to 24 beds each. Just before its closure a ceremony was held on 29 Nov 1995. The contents of the buildings were then cleared by Hilditch auctions of Malmesbury in Nov 1995, but the company has no surviving records concerning the sale. The site was then sold for housing. Highfield Park formally opened 13 Nov 1997. St Albans District Council currently (in 2009) owns the freehold, and it is run on a long lease by the independent and charitable Highfield Park Trust 'for the benefit and enjoyment of existing and new communities in the area'.

RECORDS
Storage space would not have allowed the preservation of all the surviving records, so some sampling had to be carried out before their deposit at Hertford. Subsequently there can be seen to be many gaps in the series of records.
Records often reflect these periods:
1899-1906: from the opening onwards, under the Lunacy Act 1890, and in conjunction with the Boards of Guardians
1907-1913: under Rules made 31 Oct 1906 by the Commissioners in Lunacy
1913-1930: with the effect of the Mental Deficiency Act 1913, under the Board of Control
1931-1948: with effect of Mental Treatment Act 1930, and now in conjunction with the Public Assistance Committee
1948-1962: under the National Health Service, with Bart's operating on site
1962-1983: under the National Health Service, without Bart's, and with the effect of the Mental Health Act 1959 which came into force 1 Nov 1960
1983: Mental Health Act 1983, but very little is held for that final period of the hospital's history

APPENDICES AND OTHER MATERIALS IN PRINTED CATALOGUE
1. Forms of Mental Disorder and Schedule Numbers and also Causes and Associated Factors of Insanity
2. Map

ACCESS
Some of the items catalogued in HM1 are freely available for the public to consult and there is no restriction concerning the information within them. However, for many of the records catalogued here access is restricted, both to the items themselves and to the information they contain. Personal information relating to living identifiable individuals is protected by the Data Protection Act 1998. Health records are protected by what was the 100 year closure period, being a variation by the Lord Chancellor in 1961 of the 30 year closure of NHS records set out in the Public Records Act 1958. There is a right to apply for such information under the Freedom of Information Act 2000 but it is likely that an exemption to that Act would apply, and the information would not be divulged. Please contact Hertfordshire Archives and Local Studies for further information.

Note. It is necessary for this catalogue to acknowledge and make use of historical terms which were once in medical and legal use, but which are now superseded and perhaps deemed to be derogatory or even offensive.
RelatedMaterialPUBLICATIONS AND WEBSITES:

Anderson, Brian. Nearly a Century: the History of Hill End Mental Hospital St Albans 1899-1995 [see Acc 3959]

Booty, Martin (Highfield Park Trust). Brief History of Hill End Hospital. http://highfieldparktrust.co.uk/images/stories/History/tales%20of%20hill%20end%20hospital.doc

Brimblecombe, Neil. The Changing Relationship between Mental Health Nurses and Psychiatrists in the United Kingdom. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 49(4), 344-353

Brimblecombe, Neil. Asylum Nursing as a Career in the United Kingdom 1890-1910. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 55(6), 770-777

Brimblecombe, Neil. Asylum Nursing in the UK at the end of the Victorian Era: Hill End Asylum. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 12, 57-63

Burke, AW. Social and Psychiatric Problems in Day Hospital Management at Hill End. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 1977 Summer; 23(2):103-9.

Case, Caroline and Dalley, Tessa. The Handbook of Art Therapy. Routledge. London, 1992

Chapman, David. Withdrawal. The Evocation of a Confinement. Proudstage Books Ltd. London 1965

Cracknell, Pete. County Asylums: http://www.countyasylums.com/mentalasylums/hillend01.htm

Hogan, Susan. Healing Arts: The History of Art Therapy. Jessica kingsley. 2001 [see pp143-144]

Kermani, Rakhshan. History of Hill End Hospital 1899-1948. 1992. 16pp dissertation for Diploma in the History of Medicine, held by Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London

Killick, Katherine. Working with psychotic processes in art therapy. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, Volume 7, Issue 1 1993 , pages 25 - 38

Le Hardy, William (Ed). Guide to the Hertfordshire Record Office Part 1. Quarter Sessions and Other Records in the Custody of the Officials of the County. Clerk of the Peace, Hertfordshire County Council 1961 [See especially pp125-132]

Medvei, Victor Cornelius and John L Thornton, eds. The Royal Hospital of Saint Bartholomew 1123-1973. St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, 1974. Compiled by Julie Tancell as part of the RSLP AIM25 project. Hill End: plate 87 (view), plate 88 (operating theatre), plate 89 (James Patterson Ross who was given responsbility for 80 beds at Hill End), pp256-259 training at Hill End, and Dunkirk evacuation.

Monk, Revd Arthur S. Three Counties Hospital Centenary 1860-1960. A Brief History. 1960

North West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board. Mid Herts Group Hospital Management Committee. Directory of Services and Out-Patient Clinics. Apr 1957 [copy at Welwyn Garden City library]

North West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board. Mid Herts Group Hospital Management Committee. Report 1959-1963 [copy in HALS pamphlets and at Welwyn Garden City library]

North West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board. Mid Herts Group Hospital Management Committee. A Report on the Work of the Mid Hertfordshire Hospitals [copy in HALS pamphlets Rm 8]

North West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board. Hospital Management Committee Groups. Jun 1957 [copy at WGC library]

North West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board. Hospital Management Committee Groups. Jul 1963 [copy in HALS pamphlets Rm 8]

Pettigrew, J. Reynolds, RW. Rouse, S. A Place in the Country. Three Counties Asylum 1860-1998. South Bedfordshire Community Health Care Trust. 1998

Reynolds, Chris. The Long Stay Hospitals of the St Albans Area: http://www.hertfordshire-genealogy.co.uk/data/topics/t070-long-stay-hospitals.htm

Roberts, Andrew, University of Middlesex. Index of English and Welsh Lunatic Asylums and Mental Hospitals: http://www.mdx.ac.uk/WWW/STUDY/4_13_Ta.htm#South%20East%20England

Scholey, Keith. Hertfordshire's Lost Railways. Stenlake Publishing. 2003

Subterranea Britannica. Disused Stations Site Record http://www.subbrit.org.uk/sb-sites/stations/h/hill_end/index.shtml

Taylor, Jeremy. Hospital And Asylum Architecture in England 1840-1914. Building for Health Care 1991 Includes information on architect G T Hine

Upton, Peter. John O'Connell. Man Of Barts. Peter Upton. Winchester, 1985

Voice, David. Hospital Tramways and Railways. Adam Gordon 2005. 3rd edn section on Hill End

Yeo, Geoffrey. Nursing at Barts. A History of Nursing Service and Nurse Education at St Bartholomew's. Sutton Publishing. 1995. [Eg see p77 'Evacuation to Hill End' concerning the state of the building, and working conditions]


GENERAL PUBLICATIONS:

Cashman, Bernard. A Proper House. Bedford Lunatic Asylum: 1812-1860. North Bedfordshire Health Authority, 1992.

Garside, PL and Jackson, B. Model Guide to Lancashire Mental Hospital Records

Healy, David. Psychiatric Drugs Explained. 4th edn. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.

Jones, Kathleen. Mental Health and Social Policy 1845-1959. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1960

Lidbetter, E J. The Lunacy and Mental Treatment Acts 1890-1930. Handbooks for Public Assistance Officers No 2. London: Law and Local Government Publications Limited, 1933.


FURTHER RECORDS:

BEDFORDSHIRE AND LUTON ARCHIVES AND RECORDS SERVICE
LF 27/22 Fairfield Hospital: register of patients involved in transfer to The Three Counties Hospital, including lists of patients transferred from Hill End in Aug 1939

BERKSHIRE RECORD OFFICE
DH10/D/1/5/1 Fair Mile Hospital: register of patients received from other hospitals, 1939-1941. Alphabetical register of patients received from Hill End Hospital, St Albans, on 28th August 1939. Reference numbers are HE1-HE125 for males and HE126-289 for females. Also includes entries for female patients received from Brookwood Hospital, 1941, and male patients from Great Yarmouth, 1940.

HERTFORDSHIRE ARCHIVES AND LOCAL STUDIES

Acc 93 box 26 contract for works (1933)
Acc 3959 Unpublished history of the Hospital by Brian Anderson, with research notes and photographs
Acc 4522 Item 29 Southdown Methodist Church: Carlton Group photograph album and log book 1975-2004 (the group regularly visited local hospitals: Hill End, Red House, The Stewarts). Includes pencil and watercolour drawing of Hill End Chapel by 'a patient who was hoping to become an architect till he contracted sleeping sickness'. Several photographs of outings and visits, and typescript tipped-in 'News from the Hill End Group', and annotated memorabilia. [People frequently named: staff sometimes with full names, patients usually just first names]
Acc 4981

Off Acc 79 Partly catalogued here under HM1
Off Acc 80 Includes Three Counties Asylum Letter books which also relate to Hill End, and other material
Off Acc 129: File marked 'Institute - Official Nov 1921' containing: correspondence, inventory of Hill End Asylum, various circulars on agriculture, 1 file - Destroyed Dec 1985

Off Acc 350:
Documents relating to the "Three Counties Asylum at Arlesey", including:
Reception Contract (with second copy) concerning Hertfordshire County Asylum made between the Visiting Committees of Hertfordshire County Council and Bedfordshire County Council, 15 Jul 1895 2 vols
Supplemental Agreement (with second unsigned copy) concerning The Three Counties Asylum, Arlesey, to alter the Agreement of 15 Dec 1855, 15 Jul 1895 1 vol; 1 doc
Supplemental Agreement (with second unsigned copy) concerning The Three Counties Asylum, Arlesey, to alter the Agreements of 15 Dec 1855 and 15 Jul 1895, 10 Apr 1897 1 vol; 1 doc
Supplemental Agreement concerning The Three Counties Asylum, Arlesey, to alter the Agreements of 15 Dec 1855, 15 Jul 1895 and 10 Apr 1897, 14 Feb 1903 1 vol
Supplemental Agreement concerning The Three Counties Asylum, Arlesey, to alter the Agreements of 15 Dec 1855, 15 Jul 1895, 10 Apr 1897 and 14 Feb 1903, 28 Oct 1907 1 vol
Supplemental Agreement concerning The Three Counties Asylum, Arlesey, to alter the Agreements of 15 Dec 1855, 15 Jul 1895, 10 Apr 1897, 14 Feb 1903 and 28 Oct 1907, 27 Nov 1928 1 vol

Off Acc 519 Mid-Herts Group Hospital Management Committee: sub-committee minutes, partly catalogued here in HM1

Off Acc 919: an unlisted HCC Law and Administration department accession including, for example, Box 62c Contract concerning heating of existing buildings, 1934

Off Acc 1162, Box 157 St Albans workhouse: Register of Articles found upon Inmates on Admission 1916-1949. Several references to inmates transferred to or from Hill End.

Off Acc 1182, Box 8 Libraries' correspondence file concerning the establishment and staffing of a library at Hill End Apr 1950-Oct 1964

Off Acc 1347 Horizon Health Trust material relating to the winding-up and closure of the Hospital

HCC12 Hill End Visiting Committee minutes 1900-1948 (missing 1903-1908)

HCC30 Mental Deficiency Act Committee Mins 1914-1948 when powers transferred to Health committee (see HCC 48) Volumes contain detail of individual cases.

HCC37 Area Guardians Sub-Committees of the Public Assistance Committee. Minute books record members' visits to Hill End and name patients.

HF26 Mental Deficiency and Mental Hospitals Ledgers 1945-1948

HF27 Hill End and Three Counties Lunatic Asylum Ledger 1920-1925

CC Misc 33 Order of Service for unveiling of chapel panels Mar 1951

HM2 Records of Cell Barnes Hospital. See HM2/A2/2 for 1987 report, HM2/A3/40 for 1940 Tyttenhanger air raid, HM2/A3/44 for scout camp, HM2/A4/1for c1940 orders from Steward's Boon, HM2/A9/1 for references to 1942-1955 burials at Hill End and HM2/Pa2/6 for 1933-1949 post-mortems by Hill End

HSS3/3/7 Bishops Stortford Guardians Committee. Register of Mental Hospital Patients. Indexed. Concerning patients at Hill End, Three Counties Asylum, Napsbury, and other institutions. 1939-1948
HSS3/4/4 Dacorum Guardians Committee Register of Lunatics. Indexed. Those chargeable who are at Hill End, Cell Barnes, Napsbury, Three Counties Asylum and Berkshire. 1939-1948
HSS3/5/20 East Herts Guardians Committee. Register of Lunatics in Asylums. Males and females at Hill End and Three Counties [No of Case Paper [not completed]; Date of Admission; Name; Age; Parish from which Sent; Asylum into which Admitted; Name of Head of Family Constructively Relieved; Date of Discharge; Date of Death; Observations] Admissions c1917 onwards, mainly 1930-1936.
HSS3/5/21 East Herts Guardians Committee. Register of Rate-Aided Persons of Unsound Mind Admitted into Mental Hospital. Patients admitted to Hill End, Shenley, Napsbury, Three Counties, Berkshire, Carlton Hayes, Knowle, Northampton, Brentwood, Winson Green. Indexed. Admissions c1896 onwards, mainly 1930-1944.
HSS3/5/22 East Herts Guardians Committee. Register of Rate-Aided Persons of Unsound Mind Admitted into Mental Hospital. Patients admitted to Hill End, Shenley, Napsbury, Three Counties, Berkshire, Carlton Hayes, Bucks, Essex and Colchester, Whittingham, Tooting Bec, Brentwood, Knowle, Dorset, Reading, Brighton, Maudsley, Oxford, Lancaster, Mapperley and Gateshead. Indexed. 1939-1948, including some cases admitted c1917 onwards.
HSS3/5/23 East Herts Guardians Committee. Patients in Mental Hospitals receiving pensions, concerning 24 patients at Hill End Hospital and Three Counties Asylum. 1935-1940
HSS3/5/66 East Herts Guardians Committee. Alphabetically arranged correspondence, Notices of Death, Notices of Departure, Notices of Admission, Notices of Discharge, concerning patients at Hill End. 1934-1938
HSS3/5/67 East Herts Guardians Committee. Correspondence, Notices of Death, Notices of Departure, Notices of Admission, Notices of Discharge, concerning patients at Hill End, Three Counties Asylum, Napsbury and Carlton Hayes. 1946-1947

Digswell ArtsTrust:
DE/DAT/3/1/40 Correspondence regarding the Trestle Theatre's National Lottery bid for Hill End Chapel, St Albans 1996-1998
DE/DAT/3/1/42 Correspondence regarding the Hill End Administration Block, St Albans 1998
DE/DAT/3/1/43 Correspondence regarding the Hill End Chapel Lottery Bid 1997-1998

DEX74/Z3 Includes Visitor's Book to Mental Health Exhibition in St Albans 1956, series of aerial photographs taken 1956 by De Havilland and including one of Hill End Hospital, and album of photographs of the exhibition

Ware Board of Guardians:
BG/WAR 49 Register of Pauper Lunatics Admitted into Asylum [No; Date of Admission; Name; Age; Parish from which Sent [seldom used]; Asylum into which Admitted; If Boarded-Out, under s57, Where and with Whom [column used for details of discharge, etc]; Date of Death or Discharge; Observations] Refers to Hill End and Three Counties Asylum 1900-1930
BG/WAR 89 Quarterly accounts, including lists of patients at Hill End 1897-1906
In Norfolk Asylum for quarter ending Sep 1897
In Norfolk Asylum and East Riding Asylum for quarter ending Dec 1897 and Mar 1898
In Brentwood Lunatic Asylum (George Blendell only) 1897
In Norfolk Asylum, East Riding Asylum and Somerset and Bath Asylum for quarters ending Jun Sep and Dec 1898, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1899, Mar Jun Sep 1900
In Three Counties Asylum for quarters ending Jun Sep and Dec 1899, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1900, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1901, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1902, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1903, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1904, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1905, Mar Jun Sep 1906
In Hill End Asylum for quarters ending Jun Sep Dec 1899, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1900, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1901, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1902, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1903, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1904, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1905, Mar Jun Sep and Dec 1906
Statement of the Condition of every Pauper Lunatic chargeable to Ware at Hill End Jul 1906 and Jan 1907 and at Brentwood Jul 1907

Gorhambury: deeds from earlier history of site include I.A.68, I.B.14-18, catalogue pp38-39, I.E.8-10, I.E.15, I.E.19, I.E.21, I.E.26, I.E.32-51, VIII.C.47, VIII.C.49a and DE/V/93, DE/V/99

HERTFORDSHIRE PARTNERSHIP NHS FOUNDATION TRUST
Microfiche of patient files, including at Hill End. Not available for public inspection.

LEICESTERSHIRE, LEICESTER AND RUTLAND RECORD OFFICE
DE 3533/71 Statement of accounts showing amounts paid by Hill End Hospital in respect of evacuated patients compared with actual cost of maintenance 1944
DE 3533/293/1-8 Records of Carlton Hayes Hospital, Narborough (Formerly Leicestershire and Rutland Mental Hospital and Leicestershire and Rutland Lunatic Asylum, Leicester) include medical papers of a named patient (initials JHD) at Hill End Hospital Feb-June 1938

LONDON METROPOLITAN ARCHIVES
King Edward's Hospital Fund for London (copy catalogue at HALS under DDE120 )
A/KE/716/67 Mid Herts Group Hospital Management Committee, Hill End Hospital: full catering survey Jul 1954
A/KE/736/20/1 Mid Herts Group Hospital Management Committee, Hill End Hospital; report on catering and papers and correspondence concerning grants 1953 - 1959, together with A/KE/736/20/2 a plan of proposed hairdressing salon 1963

Westminster Board of Guardians
WEBG/WM/52/2 Register of patients maintained by the Union in imbecile asylums, including Hill End 1896-1902

ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS
BAPRAS/D 1 Drawings made by Dickie Orpen (1914-2008), held in the archive of the British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons (BAPRAS). Catalogue available at http://surgicat.rcseng.ac.uk .

ST ALBANS MUSEUM
PX9751 postcard
PX9752 postcard

ST BARTHOLOMEWS HOSPITAL, LONDON
[St Barts: no patient records held, only some for Cell Barnes]
405 MO (inc paper on Hill End/St Barts relationship 1939-1961, register of nursing staff at Hill End 1940, matron's weekly reports of nursing staff 1939-1961)
405 TH (inc Hill End Hospital, Theatre A, 1939-1961; Hill End Hospital, Theatre B, 1941-1961; Hill End Hospital, Theatre C, 1939-1961; Hill End Hospital, Theatre I, 1939-1961)

Administrative Records
SBHB/HA quarterly and annual returns, 1948-1954, including for Alexandra and Hill End Hospitals

Pathology Department
SBHB/PA inc staff members, 1950-1951 including Hill End Hospital

SBHB/HC/44/160-164 maps and plans of Hill End operating theatres and buildings 1952:
160 - Plan of operating theatre suites A, B, C and 1, showing existing floor layouts and proposed alterations. Drawn by Adams, Holden and Pearson 44 x 68cm
161 - Plan showing the floor layout, together with side and long sections of operating theatre suite 1. Drawn by J Stinton Jones and Partners, consulting engineers 48 x 52cm
162 - Detailed floor plan and long section of alterations to operating theatre suite 1. Drawn by Adams, Holden and Pearson. 49 x 57cm
163 - Plan showing the floor layout and side sections of the suite for operating theatres A, B and C. Drawn by J Stinton Jones and Partners, consulting engineers. 53 x 94cm
164 - Floor plan showing details of proposed alterations to the suite for operating theatres A, B and C. Also two elevations of partitions and one of surgeons' scrub-up sink. Drawn by Adams, Holden and Pearson. 64 x 89cm

Matron's Office
SBHB/MO/2 Matrons' Weekly Reports of Nursing Staff 1929-1932; 1937-1964. These volumes record numbers of sisters and nurses within the Hospital, with numbers of staff on and off duty. Includes separate volumes with similar details of staff at Hill End Hospital, 1939-61, being:
/3 - 1939-1942
/5 - 1942-1945
/7 - 1945-1947
/9 - 1947-1950
/11 - 1950-1952
/13 - 1952-1955
/15 - 1955-1958
/17 - 1958-1961

SBHB/MO/24/3 Ward staffing arrangements at St Bartholomew' and at Hill End. Staff are not named. 1949

SBHB/MO/66 Register of nursing staff on duty in at Hill End, 1940. Arranged by ward for May quarter only. [Name; Rank; Date of Commencement in Ward; Date of Commencement of Term of Duty; Date of Leaving Ward] Indexed by name at front.

SBHB/MO/69/5 Nurses' sickness record book for Hill End Hospital 1939-1961. Contains annual statistics 1945-1961 at back. [Name; Date off Duty; Date of Return; Disease]

SBHB/MP/2/195 Illustrations for 'The Royal Hospital of St Bartholomew, 1123-1973' edited by Medvei and Thornton c1973

SBHX/8 photographs of Hill End Hospital
/727 - Soldiers and nurses at Hill End, Remembrance Day, 1939. Outdoor location with group of military patients and three nurses distributing 'poppies'. Most of the soldiers are wearing First World War uniforms which were issued to the Hospital for soldier patients. One soldier in a wheelchair and two on crutches. By London News Agency Photos Ltd. 16 x 21cm
/1203 - Formal group of orthopaedic department staff, 1958, on lawn of Charterhouse Square. Includes Bart's surgeons H Jackson Burrows and S L Higgs who apparently worked at Hill End. Hill End staff include Sister D Bale, Sister J Mackay, Senior Staff Nurse S W Roberts, Miss M Rodwell, secretary. 29 x 19cm
/2018 - Hill End Hospital, Spring 1995. Front view showing reception entrance, car parked at rear. Taken shortly before closure. 26 x 21cm.
/2019 - Hill End Hospital, Spring 1995. Rear view, including reception building. Taken shortly before closure. 26 x 21cm.
/2047 - Neurosurgical unit at Hill End. Black and white photograph of an operation in progress. The staff are (left to right) John O'Connell, Miss Phillips, Sister, Terry Hannigan, 'HJ' (assisting), Malcolm Evans and Alan Hodge (anaesthetist).

SBHX/67/1 Murray S L Bumstead's account of injury in an air raid and an account of his experiences as a patient at Barts and Hill End Hospital 1940-1941

SBHX/68: Album of photographs of Piggott's Manor and Aldenham Cottage, c1949. Piggott's Manor, Letchmore Heath, was bought by St Bart's in 1939 for use by the Nurses' Preliminary Training School. However, the outbreak of war meant that it had to be used as a home for nurses moved to Hill End when Bart's patients were evacuated there. In 1947 the adjoining property, Aldenham Cottage, was bought by the Hospital, and the Preliminary Training School moved from the Zachary Merton Home, Northwood, into the two Hertfordshire properties in 1947-1948. It stayed there until 1971, and the Manor and Cottage were sold in 1972. The photographs in this album appear to have ben taken in Summer 1949, probably for a brochure for the School of Nursing. Most of them show student nurses in uniform. They were listed in 1995 by Miss Sybil Allen, who trained at Piggot's Manor at a date almost contemporary with the album. A sketch map drawn by her, showing the relative positions of Piggott's Manor, Aldenham Cottage and their grounds, is stored with the album. Photo refs are SBHX68/1-20; '.1' suffixes refer to the duplicates that accompany each photograph.
/1 - Exterior of Piggott's Manor from the south. Shows lawn in foreground and several and several student nurses in front of house.
/2 - Eastern side of Piggott's Manor, seen from the rose garden. Several student nurses are seen in the rose garden and on the steps. The single storey building with glass skylights and sloping roof was the billiard room.
/3 - Exterior of Piggott's Manor seen from the south-east. A group of student nurses carrying notebooks is seen in the foreground. Photograph reproduced in 'League News', Sep 1949, p1.
/4 - Exterior of Piggott's Manor from the south with lawn in foreground. Several student nurses on terrace and steps. the room with a glass roof and a ballustrade around it was the conservatory.
/5 - Exterior of Piggott's Manor from the south-east. A group of student nurses is sitting on the grass in the foreground.
/6 - Piggott's Manor, seen from the house. Several student nurses are in the garden.
/7 - The front hall lounge, Piggott's Manor, seen from the main stairs. Several student nurses are sitting in easy chairs in the lounge. Photograph reproduced in 'League News', Sep 1949, p32.
/8 - Rear of Aldenham Cottage and garden, from the south. Lawn in foreground. The side entrance is hidden by the tree in the extreme right. French windows from the cottage are open and several student nurses are standing or sitting outside.
/9 - Aldenham Cottage from the east, showing the side entrance. Sunken garden in the foreground. Several student nurses near the house.
/10 - Four student nurses sitting in garden of Piggott's Manor. Garden wall covered with roses.
/11 - Interior of nurses' sitting room, Aldenham Cottage. Several student nurses are sitting in easy chairs reading magazines. One is switching on the radio.
/12 - A student nurse in her bedroom, Piggott's Manor.
/13 - Two student nurses in their bedroom, Aldenham Cottage.
/14 - Two nurses dressing in their bedroom, Piggott's Manor. One student nurse is adjusting her cap in the mirror while the other dries her hands at the wash-basin.
/15 - Student nurses in study room, Piggott's Manor.
/16 - Sister Tutors sitting by the French windows, Aldenham Cottage. On left: Miss M E Gimson with dog. On right: Miss G E Watts. Both Sister Tutors and in uniform.
17/ - Student nurses sitting at desks in classroom, Piggott's Manor. Nurses are possibly sitting an examination. A Sister Tutor is bending over one desk.
18/ - Student nurses sitting at desks in classroom, Piggott's Manor. Nurses are possibly sitting an examination. A Sister Tutor is bending over one desk. Anatomical charts are visible at the back of the room.
19/ - Nurses learning bed-making and bandaging, Piggott's Manor. Nurses practising bandaging, supervised by Sister Tutor, Miss G E Watts. Bed cradle stored on top of cupboard, Maw's inhaler on table. Foot of bed raised as for haemorrhage cases.
20/ - Nurses in Practical Room with dressing trolley, Piggott's Manor. Sister Tutor, Miss G E Watts, with face mask demonstrating use of Cheatle forceps. Beds, bed cradles and a table behind the group.

SCIENCE MUSEUM LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES, SWINDON
HAWK 2 Ae14-15 Collection of drawings of Thomas Hawksley and Co and T and C Hawksley and Co: proposed pumping station, Hill End, drawing nos. 2-3, Dec 1930

THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES

Department of Health and Social Security
BN37 Records of boards, advisory bodies and other bodies, National Health Service Health Advisory Service: Reports and Papers, reports on provision for psychiatric patients, Hill End Hospital, 1973

General Nursing Council for England and Wales
DT33 Education: Hospital Inspectors' Reports and Papers, North West Thames Region, North West Hertfordshire District, Hill End Hospital 1951-1972

DT35 Education: Nurse Training Schools, Correspondence and Papers, Parts I and II, North West Metropolitan Region Group 6, including Hill End Hospital, Mid-Hertfordshire HMC, Oster Hills Hospital, St Albans City Hospital, Sister's Hospital St Albans, Welwyn and Hatfield Hospital 1921-1967

Department of Education and Science
ED32 Medical Branch and Special Services Branch: Special Schools' Files, St Albans, Hill End Hospital Special School, 1947-1952

Medical Research Council
FD1 General Records of the Medical Research Committee and Medical Research Council, World War II and the Medical Research Council, War and Post-War Research: Penicillin, Penicillin Clinical Trials at Hill End Hospital, 1943-1947

Ministry of Health
Various series may be relevant, such as MH36 (Registers of Mental and Mental Defective Nurses 1921-1970), MH51, MH83/116 (erection of asylum 1894-1897), MH85, MH86, and MH94 (patients' admission registers, 1846-1957, containing patient information to 1960; all persons admitted to county asylums, indexed year by year [Name of Asylum; Date of Admission; Date of Discharge or Death] See article in Family Tree Magazine Jul 2007)

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON
GB0103 NPIER. Papers of John Russell Napier 1917-1987 Registrar to the Peripheral Nerve Injury Unit, Hill End Hospital, from 1946

WELLCOME LIBRARY FOR THE HISTORY AND UNDERSTANDING OF MEDICINE
NCUACS 85.6.99/A129 Applications for employment, including for position of Junior Demonstrator, Department of Pathology, Hill End Hospital, Mar 1943
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